This report analyses the effect of Swedish sustainable city export promotion activities towards China. Few Swedish companies have in fact been involved in business activities and the report discusses various ways to improve the effectiveness of promotion instruments.
China is one of the high priority countries in the Swedish Government’s inter-nationalisation strategy, particularly in the fields of the environment and energy. Several Swedish official bodies have been tasked with supporting research and development activities, and with exporting Swedish environmental technology to China. Two special functions have been set up to coordinate this work – Centec at the embassy in Beijing and the International Environmental Technology Office (IMT) in Stockholm.
These represent substantial investments in time and money. For example, Vinnova (Sweden’s Innovation Agency) and the Energy Agency are investing in a 3-year project in 2013-2016, with SEK 40 million to support the development of strategic research and innovation collaborations on environmental projects between Sweden and China.
It is essential that this and other investments are based on well-founded considerations and detailed analyses of circumstances in China if the investments are to provide long-term returns for Sweden. Growth Analysis has been tasked by the government to produce documentation that increases people’s understanding of developments in China and the significance of such developments for Sweden.
This report is intended to contribute to this process by utilising experience from two Chinese eco-city projects with Swedish participation – Tangshan Bay Eco-City and the Sino-Swedish Low Carbon Eco-City in Wuxi – in order to discuss which specific success factors or obstacles for this type of project can be identified.
However, what the report demonstrates is that so far not enough has been done to realise the high ambitions attached to these investments in China. The experience to date just about the export of Swedish solutions for sustainable cities can be summarised in a few key points:
Sweden still has an excellent reputation and good relationships with the Chinese authorities. Deriving benefit from these two factors lies at the heart of our efforts to develop future strategies and collaborative projects.
Against the background of the priorities in the Government’s environmental technology strategy, the main objective for official bodies and Swedish companies is to bridge the gaps between the marketing of Swedish sustainable city development, environmental engineering and business opportunities that lead to clear contracts, and also to ensure that those contracts entered into, are complied with by the Chinese counterparties. The Swedish presence in China helps to create the right preconditions for this – but there is good reason to consider in what ways ongoing and planned initiatives might have greater effect.
There are two key questions in this connection, summarised below.
Currently several objectives have been defined for the Government’s initiatives for greater collaboration with China in the areas of the environment and energy. Overall, it is all about the exchange of know-how and experience that may influence China’s development in a more environmentally sustainable direction which in the long run can create opportunities for increased exports to China of Swedish environmental technology. There are contracts about collaboration both in pure environmental management, research and engineering or the implementation of solutions to specific problems. The focus for this report is the latter, even if there are obviously connections between the various areas (with the potential for strengthened connections and synergy effects).
Formulating the top-level objectives is obviously the Government’s task, but arising from this report there are two questions which may be relevant to bear in mind when the objectives and focus for the future are discussed.
In previous analyses, Tillväxtanalys has shown that it is hard to quantify any general positive effects from Government initiatives for promoting exports, and the effects which can be measured are not particularly great.¹ The question being put is whether it is possible to achieve a greater effect by designing the support efforts differently? No definitive answer is provided, but based on the case studies which have been analysed, some factors with the potential to contribute to this have been identified.
One recurring observation is that Sweden could do more in offering package and system solutions rather than focusing on specific technologies or products. This approach is already established and has been manifested in the Symbio City concept. But experience shows that in practice the message is still broken down into components rather than into coherent system – solutions. One proposal put forward is to set up consortiums or other forms of close collaboration, consisting of several small companies who together can deliver more wide-ranging solutions. This might enable official bodies to play a role by setting up meeting places and other platforms for collaboration between companies, also to provide advice and other support in the early stages.
Another important factor is to identify projects that have particularly good potential to actually be implemented to plan and which suit the solutions and companies available in Sweden. But there are strong indications that the most ambitious and comprehensive high profile projects described in this report do not in fact do so. Instead, more suitable candidates that better match the Swedish companies’ profiles and capacities can be found at local level and in progressive smaller cities.
Furthermore there are many indications that even more effort should be devoted to building long-term relationships and to deriving benefits from Sweden’s good reputation. In this, government bodies can play an important role by producing better decision-making documentation, investing in long-term business relationships, with a build-up of capacity on the Chinese side, and by devoting effort to clarifying and formalising the objectives that create better business opportunities for the Swedish companies.
Finally, the initiatives being developed to strengthen the know-how and trading relationships with China should be set in a wider policy perspective. What matters is how these initiatives relate to equivalent initiatives in other countries, and how the internationalisation initiatives relate to initiatives for greater research, innovation and business trends generally in Sweden. In view of these dimensions, it is important not only to try to optimise the system as a whole in order to increase the total cost efficiency, but also to analyse the various initiatives one at a time. The Government, with its analytical and promotional agencies, has an important task in producing the required knowledge materials in the form of evaluations and strategic analyses, as well as setting the necessary priorities based on the results that have emerged.
¹ For example, see Tillväxtanalys’s Report 2009:05 Export promotion – a cornerstone in a future internationalisation strategy?
Sustainable city development and clean-tech in China - Experiences from two case studies